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自由颂:纪念裴多菲诞辰200周年

COde to Freedom:the 200th Anniversary of Petőfi 's Birthday

今日邮票 stamptoday.net 2023.01.06 文章汇总  微信公众号 今日头条 一点资讯 美篇

本文选自2023年1月1日《今日邮票》电子日报,访问官网stamptoday.net可下载PDF文件。

   裴多菲是1848年匈牙利革命领导人之一,次年独立宣言通过,匈牙利共和国成立,之后奥地利俄国联军进攻匈牙利。1849年7月31日,裴多菲投身瑟什堡战役,从此失踪,时年仅26岁。鲁迅评价裴多菲是一个“为爱而歌,为国而死”的民族诗人。

In 1848, the revolution broke out in Hungary.Petőfi was one of the leaders. The next year, he passed the Declaration of Independence and established the Republic of Hungary. Later, the Austrian Russian coalition attacked Hungary. On July 31, he took part in the Battle of Thursburg and disappeared. He was only 26 years old.Lu Xun evaluated Petőfi as a national poet who "sang for love and died for the country".

  2022年3月4日,匈牙利发行了裴多菲诞辰200周年邮票从而拉开持续一年的纪念活动的帷幕。2022-2023年是匈牙利最伟大的民族诗人Sándor Petőfi诞辰二百周年。他是国际上最著名的匈牙利诗人,也是匈牙利浪漫主义最有影响的代表人物。他为自己的终极理想——匈牙利的自由和独立献出了生命。

On March 4, 2022, Hungary issued a stamp for the 200th anniversary of the birth of Mr. Petőfi, thus marking the beginning of a one-year commemorative activity. 2022-2023 is the greatest Hungarian national poet S á ndor Pet ő The bicentennial of fi's birth. He is the most famous Hungarian poet in the world and the most influential representative of Hungarian romanticism. He gave his life for his ultimate ideal - freedom and independence in Hungary.

   裴多菲是伟大的革命诗人、匈牙利民族文学的奠基人,在匈牙利整个民族的发展史上,他占有者崇高的地位。他继承和发展了启蒙运动文学的战斗传统,被誉为“是在被奴隶的鲜血浸透了的、肥沃的黑土里生长出来的‘一朵带刺的玫瑰”。多年以来,裴多菲作为争取民族解放和文化革命的一面旗帜,得到了全世界进步人士的公认。他那一首首脍炙人口的诗篇,至今仍在广为传诵。

Petőfi is a great revolutionary poet and the founder of Hungarian national literature. He holds a high position in the development history of the whole Hungarian nation. He inherited and developed the battle tradition of the Enlightenment literature and was known as "a rose with thorns growing in the fertile black soil saturated with the blood of slaves". Over the years, Petőfi has been recognized by progressive people all over the world as a banner for national liberation and cultural revolution. His famous poems are still widely read today.

   裴多菲幼年远离家乡去寄宿学校读书,养成了喜爱独处、性情孤僻、不爱交际的性格,他喜欢读书、专心写诗作文,学习成绩优异。裴多菲十岁到布达佩斯学习拉丁语和德语,对匈牙利古典作家,例如巴拉塞·巴林特、兹里尼·米克洛什、秋柯诺依·维德兹·米哈依、包恰尼·雅诺什等,特别是魏勒斯马尔蒂·米哈依等前人的作品沉醉与迷恋。他日夜攻读欧洲优秀的文艺作品,其中包括拜伦、雪莱以及海涅和贝朗瑞的诗歌。此外他对戏剧产生强烈的兴趣,几乎每天晚上都到布达佩斯民族剧院看戏。

When he was young, Petőfi went to a boarding school far away from his hometown to study. He developed a personality of being alone, withdrawn and not sociable. He liked reading, concentrated on writing poems and compositions, and achieved excellent academic results. At the age of 10, Petőfi went to Budapest to learn Latin and German, and was fascinated by the works of Hungarian classical writers, such as Balasai Balint, Zrini Miklos, Chokonoy Videz Mihani, Bauchani Janos, and especially Weilesmarti Mihani. He studied excellent European literary and artistic works day and night, including the poems of Byron, Shelley, Heine and Belanger. In addition, he has a strong interest in drama and goes to the Budapest National Theatre almost every night.

   成年后裴多菲参加了流浪剧团,几乎游遍了半个匈牙利的江山,这使他有机会接触下层劳动群众,了解他们的悲惨生活。裴多菲开始搜集民歌,他采用劳动人民的口语开始创作。在十九世纪初的匈牙利诗坛上,流行拉丁语诗的风潮,格律繁严、语言晦涩,与劳动人民隔绝。裴多菲通过搜集民歌,突破拉丁语诗的限制,采用民族语言,在诗歌创作上探索出一条健康的道路。他认为民歌是劳动人民的创作,有着真切的感情,加以提炼可以提高到真正的艺术珍品。

When he was an adult, Petőfi joined the Wandering Opera Troupe and traveled almost half of Hungary, which gave him a chance to contact the lower working people and understand their miserable lives. Petőfi began to collect folk songs, and he began to create them in the spoken language of the working people. At the beginning of the 19th century, in the Hungarian poetry world, the trend of popular Latin poetry was isolated from the working people because of its complicated and strict rhythm and obscure language. By collecting folk songs, Petőfi broke through the limitation of Latin poetry and adopted national language to explore a healthy path in poetry creation. He believes that folk songs are the creation of working people, with real feelings, and can be refined into real art treasures.

  裴多菲二十一岁时开始担任《佩斯时装报》助理编辑,开始组织佩斯的激进青年,努力从事政治与文学研究。他所领导的以毕尔瓦兹咖啡馆为活动中心的进步青年,后来形成名为“三月青年”的组织,在佩斯起义中起到巨大的推动作用。《佩斯时装报》是一个带有封建性质、崇拜欧洲文化、轻视民族文学传统的守旧派刊物。他期望以《佩斯时装报》和科苏特创办的《佩斯新闻》为阵地,向本国的封建复古派和欧洲的反动浪漫派作家们进行斗争。这一时期,裴多菲写下了一系列的政治抒情诗,例如《爱国者之歌》、《贵族》、《给在国外的匈牙利人》、《为什么我不出生在一千年以前?》、《奴隶国的儿子》等,这些抒情诗标志着裴多菲革命诗歌的开始。

At the age of 21, Petőfi began to work as the assistant editor of Pace Fashion News, and began to organize radical youth in Pace to engage in political and literary research. The progressive youth led by him, who took Bilwaz Cafe as the center of activities, later formed an organization called "March Youth", which played a huge role in promoting the Pace Uprising. Pace Fashion News is a conservative publication with feudal nature, which worships European culture and belittles national literature tradition. He expected to take Pace Fashion Newspaper and Pace News founded by Cosut as the front to fight against the feudal retro writers in his country and the reactionary romantic writers in Europe. During this period, Petőfi wrote a series of political lyrics, such as Song of the Patriot, Nobles, To Hungarians Abroad, Why I wasn't born a thousand years ago, Son of the Slave State, etc. These lyrics marked the beginning of Petőfi's revolutionary poetry.

  1848年春,奥地利统治下的匈牙利民族矛盾与阶级矛盾已经达到白热化程度。裴多菲目睹人民遭受侵略和奴役,大声地疾呼:“难道我们要世代相传做奴隶吗?难道我们永远没有自由和平等吗?”诗人开始把理想同革命紧紧地连在了一起,决心依靠贫苦人民来战斗,并写下一系列语言凝练的作品,作为鼓舞人们走向民族民主革命的号角。3月15日清晨,震惊世界的“佩斯三月起义”爆发,一万多名起义者集中在民族博物馆前,裴多菲当众朗诵了他的《民族之歌》:“起来,匈牙利人,祖国正在召唤!是时候了,还不算太晚!愿意做自由人呢,还是做奴隶?你们自己选择吧,就是这个问题!”起义者呼声雷动,迅速占领了布达佩斯,使这里成为当时的欧洲革命中心。裴多菲领导的起义队伍,以红白绿三色旗为前导,以人民的名义夺取了印刷机器,印出了起义纲领等重要文件。起义队伍冲向布达监狱,释放了因创办《工人报》而被囚禁的政治犯。第二年4月,匈牙利国会还通过独立宣言,建立共和国。恩格斯曾指出:“匈牙利是从三月革命时起在法律上和实际上都完全废除了农民封建义务的唯一国家。”

In the spring of 1848, the ethnic and class contradictions in Hungary under Austrian rule had reached a white hot level. When Petőfi witnessed the people being invaded and enslaved, he cried out loudly: "Do we want to be slaves from generation to generation? Do we never have freedom and equality?" The poet began to closely link the ideal with the revolution, determined to rely on the poor people to fight, and wrote a series of works with concise language as a bugle to encourage people to move towards national democratic revolution. On the morning of March 15, the "March uprising in Perth" that shocked the world broke out. More than 10000 insurgents gathered in front of the National Museum. Petőfi recited his "Song of the Nation" in public: "Get up, Hungarians, the motherland is calling! It is time, and it is not too late! Would you like to be a free man or a slave? You can choose, that is the problem!" The voice of the insurgents was thunderous, and they quickly occupied Budapest, This made it the center of European revolution at that time. The uprising team led by Petőfi, led by the red, white and green flag, seized the printing machine in the name of the people and printed important documents such as the uprising program. The uprising team rushed to Buda Prison and released the political prisoners who had been imprisoned for founding the Workers' Daily. In April of the next year, the Hungarian Parliament also adopted the Declaration of Independence and established the Republic. Engels once pointed out: "Hungary is the only country that has completely abolished the feudal obligations of farmers in law and in practice since the March Revolution."

  面对布达佩斯起义,决心维护欧洲旧有秩序的奥地利皇帝斐迪南联合俄国沙皇尼古拉一世,34万俄奥联军向着人口仅有500万的匈牙利入侵。民族危难时刻,裴多菲给指挥官贝姆将军写信:“请让我与您一起去战场,当然,我仍将竭力用我的笔为祖国服务……”在1848这一战火纷飞的年份里,裴多菲写下了多达106首抒情诗。1849年1月,裴多菲成为一名少校军官,他写诗同时又直接拿起武器参加反抗俄奥联军的战斗。7月31日晨,贝姆将军将还能战斗的300人组成了一支骑兵队,特意叮嘱裴多菲留下,他却违背了将军的命令,跟在骑兵队后面出发。他最后被看到是被两名俄国哥萨克骑兵前后围住,一柄弯刀凶狠地向他劈来,他躲开的同时被另一把尖利的长矛刺进了身体……此后数十年里,匈牙利人民始终不愿相信他们的诗人已不在人世。

In the face of the uprising in Budapest, Ferdinand, the Austrian emperor who was determined to maintain the old order in Europe, united with Nikolai I, the Russian tsar, and 340000 Russian Austrian troops invaded Hungary with a population of only 5 million. At the time of national crisis, Petőfi wrote a letter to the commander, General Bem: "Please let me go to the battlefield with you. Of course, I will still try my best to serve the motherland with my pen..." In the year of war in 1848, Petőfi wrote as many as 106 lyrical poems. In January 1849, Petőfi became a major officer. While writing poems, he directly took up arms to fight against the Russian Austrian coalition. On the morning of July 31, General Bem formed a cavalry team of 300 people who could still fight. He specifically told Petőfi to stay, but he disobeyed the general's order and set out behind the cavalry team. He was finally seen surrounded by two Russian Cossack cavalry. A machete cut at him fiercely, and he was stabbed into his body by another sharp spear while evading... In the following decades, the Hungarian people never wanted to believe that their poet was no longer alive.

  裴多菲牺牲时仅26岁,身后留下22岁的妻子和1岁半的幼子。他一生中写下了800多首抒情诗和8部长篇叙事诗,此外还有80多万字的小说、政论、戏剧和游记,且有相当部分在战火中完成。这样的高产率,在欧洲文学史上是非常罕见的。

Petőfi was only 26 years old when he died, leaving behind his 22 year old wife and a one-and-a-half year old son. In his life, he wrote more than 800 lyric poems and 8 long narrative poems, as well as more than 800000 words of novels, political commentaries, plays and travel notes, and quite a few of them were completed in the war. Such a high yield rate is very rare in the history of European literature.

  中文读者最为熟悉的是他的不朽名作《自由与爱情》:“生命诚可贵,爱情价更高。若为自由故,两者皆可抛。”本期《今日邮票》第一版刊发了这首诗的匈牙利文版和英文版,原文直译为“自由,爱情!我两者皆需。为爱情我奉献生命,为自由我奉献爱情。”很明显我们所熟悉的版本读起来更加有铿锵有力,可以说正是这一伟大作品最优美的诠释。近百年来,无数的有志青年正是受到他的感召走向了不惧强权、不计得失、不惜生命的革命道路,他的译者与原作者一样,二十出头就为理想献出了宝贵的生命,他的名字叫做殷夫,一名年轻的共产党员,1931年在上海英勇就义。

Chinese readers are most familiar with his immortal masterpiece Freedom and Love: "Life is precious, and love is more expensive. If freedom is the reason, both can be thrown away." The first edition of this issue of Today's Stamps published Hungarian and English versions of the poem, The original text literally translates as "freedom, love! I need both. I dedicate my life to love, and I dedicate my love to freedom." Obviously, the version we are familiar with reads more forcefully, which can be said to be the most beautiful interpretation of this great work. In the past hundred years, countless ambitious young people have been inspired by him to take the revolutionary road of fearing power, regardless of gain or loss, and regardless of life. His translator, like the original author, gave his precious life for the ideal in his early twenties. His name is Yin Fu. A young Communist, he died bravely in Shanghai in 1931.

  作为匈牙利的民族英雄,裴多菲多次登上了匈牙利和其他国家的邮票。1919年,匈牙利成立了苏维埃共和国,7月14日发行了“第一次全匈苏维埃代表大会”纪念邮票一套5枚,图案为马克思,恩格斯、裴多斐等革命先行者的头像。1923年,在他诞辰100周年时,匈牙利专门为他发行了一套邮票。1949年,裴多菲牺牲100周年之际,匈牙利发行了三枚邮票进行纪念,次年又改色再次发行。苏联在1959年纪念匈牙利人民共和国成立15周年的邮票上采用了裴多菲的头像。1972年,匈牙利发行了纪念他150周年诞辰的三枚邮票,以雕刻版印制,可谓精品,不但采用了他的头像,还将1848年革命时的场景以及1849年他向敌人冲锋时的形象都生动记录下来。此外在纪念1848年革命和一些文学家的邮票上也出现过他的形象。

As a national hero of Hungary, Peiduofei has been on the stamps of Hungary and other countries for many times. In 1919, Hungary established the Soviet Republic. On July 14, it issued a set of five commemorative stamps for the "First All Hungarian Soviet Congress", with the heads of Marx, Engels, Peiduofei and other revolutionary pioneers. In 1923, on the 100th anniversary of his birth, Hungary issued a special set of stamps for him. In 1949, on the 100th anniversary of Petőfi's sacrifice, Hungary issued three stamps to commemorate the occasion, and the next year, the stamps were re issued in a different color. In 1959, the Soviet Union adopted the portrait of Petőfi on the stamps commemorating the 15th anniversary of the founding of the People's Republic of Hungary. In 1972, Hungary issued three stamps to commemorate his 150th birthday, which were printed in engraved form. It is a masterpiece. It not only uses his head portrait, but also vividly records the scene of the revolution in 1848 and the image of his charge against the enemy in 1849. In addition, his image also appeared on the stamps commemorating the 1848 revolution and some writers.

本文选自2023年1月1日《今日邮票》电子日报,访问官网stamptoday.net可下载PDF文件。

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